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ABCD of Lateral Condyle Humerus Fracture in Children: Anatomy, Biomechanics, Classification and Diagnosis

Volume 7 | Issue 2 | May-August 2021 | Page: 24-29 | Taral V Nagda, Avi Shah, Dhwanil Tada

Authors: Taral V Nagda [1], Avi Shah [1], Dhwanil Tada [1]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, SRCC NH Childrens Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Taral Nagda,
Consultant Paediatric Orthopaedic Surgeon, SRCC NH Children’s Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
E-mail: taralnagda@gmail.com


Abstract

The lateral condyle fractures which form less than 20% of paediatric elbow fractures are seen at average 6 years age and have less severity of signs and symptoms which may lead to delayed diagnosis. Internal rotation view of X-ray of elbow is important in addition to standard AP and Lateral views. Jakob, Weiss and Song are commonly used classification systems in decision making.

Keywords: Lateral condyle fracture, Children, Classification, Anatomy, Diagnosis.


Further Reading

1. Abzug JM, Dua K, Kozin SH, Herman MJ. Current concepts in the treatment of lateral condyle fractures in children. JAAOS-Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2020 Jan 1;28(1):e9-19.
2. Baker M, Borland M. Range of elbow movement as a predictor of bony injury in children. Emergency Medicine Journal. 2011 Aug 1;28(8):666-9.
3. Finnbogason T, Karlsson G, Lindberg L, Mortensson W. Nondisplaced and minimally displaced fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children: a prospective radiographic investigation of fracture stability. J Pediatr Orthop. 1995;15:422–5.
4. Flynn JC, Richards JF, Saltzman RI. Prevention and treatment of non-union of slightly displaced fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. An end-result study. J Bone Jt Surg Am.1975;57:1087–92.
5. Herman MJ, Boardman MJ, Hoover JR, Chafetz RS. Relationship of the anterior humeral line to the capitellar ossific nucleus: variability with age. JBJS. 2009 Sep 1;91(9):2188-93
6. Houshian S, Mehdi B, Larsen MS. The epidemiology of elbow fracture in children: analysis of 355 fractures, with special reference to supracondylar humerus fractures. J Orthop Sci. 2001;6:312–5. https ://doi.org/10.1007/s0077 61006 0312.
7. Jakob R, Fowles JV, Rang M, Kassab MT. Observations concerning fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. J Bone Jt Surg Br. 1975;57:430–6.
8. Landin LA, Danielsson LG. Elbow fractures in children. Anepidemiological analysis of 589 cases. Acta Orthop Scand. 1986;57:309–12.
9. Pressmar J, Weber B, Kalbitz M. Different classifications concerning fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery. 2020 Apr 23:1-7.
10. Ramo BA, Funk SS, Elliott ME, Jo CH. The Song classification is reliable and guides prognosis and treatment for pediatric lateral condyle fractures: an independent validation study with treatment algorithm. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2020 Mar 1;40(3):e203-9.
11. Schroeder K, Gilbert S, Ellington M, Souder C, Yang S. Pediatric Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures. JPOSNA. 2020 May 3;2(1).
12. Song KS, Kang CH, Min BW, Bae KC, Cho CH, Lee JH. Closed reduction and internal fixation of displaced unstable lateral condylar fractures of the humerus in children. JBJS. 2008 Dec 1;90(12):2673-81.
13. Song KS, Kang CH, Min BW, Bae KC, Cho CH. Internal oblique radiographs for diagnosis of nondisplaced or minimally displaced lateral condylar fractures of the humerus in children. JBJS. 2007 Jan 1;89(1):58-63.
14. Song KS, Waters PM. Lateral condylar humerus fractures: which ones should we fix? Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2012 Jun 1;32:S5-9.
15. Tan SH, Dartnell J, Lim AK, Hui JH. Paediatric lateral condyle fractures: a systematic review. Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery. 2018 Jun 1;138(6):809-17.
16. Tan SHS, Dartnell J, Lim AKS, Hui JH. Paediatric lateral condyle fractures: A systematic review. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2018;138(6):809–17.
17. Weiss JM, Graves S, Yang S, Mendelsohn E, Kay RM, Skaggs DL. A new classification system predictive of complications in surgically treated pediatric humeral lateral condyle fractures. J Pediar Orthop. 2009 Sep 1;29(6):602-5.

 

 


How to Cite this Article:  Nagda TV, Shah A, Tada D | ABCD of Lateral Condyle Humerus Fracture in Children: Anatomy, Biomechanics, Classification and Diagnosis | International Journal of Paediatric
Orthopaedics | May-August 2021; 7(2): 24-29.

(Article Text HTML)      (Download PDF)


Complications of Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures in Children

Volume 7 | Issue 2 | May-August 2021 | Page: 42-47 | Vikas Basa, Avi Shah, Shital N Parikh

Authors: Vikas Basa [1], Avi Shah [2], Shital N Parikh [3]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Institute Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
[2] Department of Orthopaedics, SRCC Childrens Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
[3] Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Burnet Av, Cincinnati, OH.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Shital N Parikh,
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital 3333. Burnet Av Cincinnati, OH. 45229.
E-mail: Shital.parikh@cchmc.org


Abstract

Lateral humeral condyle fractures in children are easily missed and often associated with complications. These complications include malunion, delayed union or nonunion, lateral spur formation, fishtail deformity and growth disturbances. There is also controversy related to best treatment options including closed vs open reduction and K-wire vs screw fixation. Though some complications like malunion are avoidable, others like lateral spur formation are inevitable. Knowledge about these complications would help in counseling patients and their families. The purpose of this article was to review common complications related to these fractures and suggest tips to avoid some of them.
Keywords: Paediatric, Lateral condyle fracture, Internal oblique X-ray, Arthrogram, Anatomical reduction, Complications, Tips to overcome


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How to Cite this Article:  Basa V, Shah A, Parikh SN | Complications of Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures in Children | International Journal of Paediatric Orthopaedics | May-August 2021; 7(2): 42-47.

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