Tag Archive for: Paediatric

Epidemiology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns in Pyogenic Bone and Joint Infections in Children

Volume 9 | Issue 1 | January-April 2023 | Page: 07-12 | Amit Sharma, G Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Garima Sharma, Pallavi Sharma, Sange Negi

DOI- https://doi.org/10.13107/ijpo.2023.v09.i01.149

Authors: Amit Sharma [1] MS Ortho., G Nirmal Raj Gopinathan [2] MS Ortho., Garima Sharma [3] MD Microbiology, Pallavi Sharma [4] MS ObGy., Sange Negi [1] MS Ortho.

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.
[2] Department of Orthopaedics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
[3] Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.
[4] Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College Hospital, Chandigarh, India.

Address of Correspondence

Dr. Garima Sharma,
Department of Microbiology, Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India.
E-mail: garimaserene@gmail.com


Staphylococcus aureus is the most common organism causing paediatric bone and joint infections accounting for 86% of pus culture-positive cases. Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major challenge in the tertiary care setting as the majority (56%) of all pus culture postive cases were MRSA. The male to female ratio in these infections was approximately 2:1. The lower limbs were affected in the majority of children with osteomyelitis (OM) with hip joint being the commonest (50%) followed by the knee. Broad spectrum antibiotics were used emperically in 40% of cases prior to referral to a tertiary care centre. MRSA infections were associated with a higher likelihood of complications.
Keywords: Paediatric, Pyogenic, Bone and joint infections, Antibiotic practices


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How to Cite this Article: Sharma A, Gopinathan GNR, Sharma G, Sharma P, Negi S | Epidemiology and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns in Pyogenic Bone and Joint Infections in Children | International Journal of Paediatric Orthopaedics | January-April 2023; 9(1): 07-12 | https://doi.org/10.13107/ijpo.2023.v09.i01.149

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Diagnosis of Pediatric Musculoskeletal Infections: Current Concepts Review

Volume 8 | Issue 1 | January-April 2022 | Page: 14-23 | Neeraj Vij, Jessica Burns, Melissa Esparza, Alexandra Dominianni, Yerin Cho, Mohan V Belthur


Authors: Neeraj Vij BS [1], Jessica Burns MD [2], Melissa Esparza MD [2], Alexandra Dominianni BA [1], Yerin Cho BS [1], Mohan V Belthur MD [1, 2]

[1] Department of Child Health & Orthopaedics, University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
[2] Department of Orthopedics, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Mohan V. Belthur,
Department of Child Health & Orthopaedics, University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. Department of Orthopedics, Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, Arizona, USA.
E-mail: mbelthur@phoenixchildrens.com


Introduction: Pediatric musculoskeletal infections are common and constitute one of the top five conditions contributing to the burden of musculoskeletal disease in childhood. With early accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment, the clinical course, and outcomes of musculoskeletal infections can be favorable. However, poor outcomes (morbidity/mortality), a wide spectrum of post-infective sequela and significant functional impairment can occur, especially in the setting of delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment. The purpose of this narrative review is to provide an overview of the standard diagnostic modalities with an emphasis on the recent literature and to summarize the current state of knowledge on the newer diagnostic modalities of the 21rst century.
Materials and Methods: A literature search was performed using the following keywords: “diagnosis”, OR “diagnostic modalities”, OR “diagnostic capability” AND “children” OR “pediatric” AND “musculoskeletal” OR “bony” OR “orthopedic” OR “muscular” AND “infection” OR “bacterial” OR “viral” OR “fungal”. Databases searched included PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS. This returned a total of 315 articles. English language articles published between January 1990 and March 2022 regarding traditional or newer diagnostic modalities and pediatric musculoskeletal infection were included in this review.
Results: A total of 62 articles met the inclusion criteria. Our knowledge base regarding the traditional diagnostic modalities has evolved to include several scoring systems with good sensitivities and specificities. Cellular acute phase reactants show promise in the recent literature. There is good literature regarding the evolution of imaging techniques to improve diagnosis. Novel diagnostic modalities in the recent literature include plasma-based acute phase reactants, polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing.
Conclusion: Continuing to improve our diagnostic accuracy of Pediatric MSKIs can help decrease the worldwide burden of these conditions. As the use of adjunctive biomarkers becomes more common, diagnoses and pathogen identification could be made timelier and antibiotic choices could be individualized leading to improved outcomes. Limited sequence imaging techniques can reduce the associated costs. Polymerase chain reaction and next generation sequencing are important novel technologies that can revolutionize the diagnosis of pediatric musculoskeletal infection.
Keywords:  Paediatric, Musculoskeletal infection, Diagnosis.


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How to Cite this Article:  Vij N, Burns J, Esparza M, Dominianni A, Cho Y, Belthur MV | Septic Arthritis Management: Current Guidelines | International Journal of Paediatric Orthopaedics | January-April 2022; 8(1): 14-23.

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Complications of Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures in Children

Volume 7 | Issue 2 | May-August 2021 | Page: 42-47 | Vikas Basa, Avi Shah, Shital N Parikh

Authors: Vikas Basa [1], Avi Shah [2], Shital N Parikh [3]

[1] Department of Orthopaedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Institute Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
[2] Department of Orthopaedics, SRCC Childrens Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
[3] Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Burnet Av, Cincinnati, OH.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Shital N Parikh,
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital 3333. Burnet Av Cincinnati, OH. 45229.
E-mail: Shital.parikh@cchmc.org


Lateral humeral condyle fractures in children are easily missed and often associated with complications. These complications include malunion, delayed union or nonunion, lateral spur formation, fishtail deformity and growth disturbances. There is also controversy related to best treatment options including closed vs open reduction and K-wire vs screw fixation. Though some complications like malunion are avoidable, others like lateral spur formation are inevitable. Knowledge about these complications would help in counseling patients and their families. The purpose of this article was to review common complications related to these fractures and suggest tips to avoid some of them.
Keywords: Paediatric, Lateral condyle fracture, Internal oblique X-ray, Arthrogram, Anatomical reduction, Complications, Tips to overcome


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How to Cite this Article:  Basa V, Shah A, Parikh SN | Complications of Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures in Children | International Journal of Paediatric Orthopaedics | May-August 2021; 7(2): 42-47.

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